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  3. J Archives of Surgery. 2012;147(11):1000-1007. > 40% of patients who experience complications after surgery experience them at home / 17% experienced a complication; 42% occurred Post Discharged

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Anemia

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  23. Karkouti K, Wijeysundera DN, and Beattie WS: Risk associated with preoperative anemia in cardiac surgery: A multicenter cohort study. Circulation 2008; 117:478–84

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Cardiac

Cardiovascular

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  2. Thomas, G. et al. Why women are not small men: sex-related differences in perioperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Perioper. Med. Lond. Engl. 9, 18 (2020).

Coagulation

Cognition

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Diabetes

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  22. Alexiewicz JM, Kumar D, Smogorzewski M, Klin M, Massry SG. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: abnormalities in metabolism and function. Ann Intern Med. 1995;123:919–24.

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  24. Sajina Shakya,1 Yan Wang,1 Judith A. Mack,1,2 and Edward V. Maytin; Hyperglycemia-Induced Changes in Hyaluronan Contribute to Impaired Skin Wound Healing in Diabetes: Review and Perspective. International Journal of Cell Biology, 2015; doi.org/10.1155/2015/701738

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  31. PM20,D5  Halkos ME, Puskas JD, Lattouf OM, et al. Elevated preoperative hemoglobin A1c level is predictive of adverse events after coronary artery bypass surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2008; 136:631.

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  34. PM33 Joshi GP, Chung F, Vann MA, et al. Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia consensus statement on perioperative blood glucose management in diabetic patients undergoing ambulatory surgery. Anesth Analg 2010; 111:1378.

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  44. PM8 Russell RC, Walker CJ, Bloom SR. Hyperglucagonaemia in the surgical patient. Br Med J 1975; 1:10.

  45. PM19 Sato H, Carvalho G, Sato T, et al. The association of preoperative glycemic control, intraoperative insulin sensitivity, and outcomes after cardiac surgery. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010; 95:4338.

  46. PM12 Schricker T, Gougeon R, Eberhart L, et al. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and the catabolic response to surgery. Anesthesiology 2005; 102:320.

  47. PM22 Stryker LS, Abdel MP, Morrey ME, et al. Elevated postoperative blood glucose and preoperative hemoglobin A1C are associated with increased wound complications following total joint arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2013; 95:808.

  48. PM30 Umpierrez GE, Hellman R, Korytkowski MT, et al. Management of hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients in non-critical care setting: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012; 97:16.

  49. PM24 van den Boom W, Schroeder RA, Manning MW, et al. Effect of A1C and Glucose on Postoperative Mortality in Noncardiac and Cardiac Surgeries. Diabetes Care 2018; 41:782.

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  51. Frisch A, Chandra P, Smiley D, et al. Prevalence and clinical outcome of hyperglycemia in the perioperative period in noncardiac surgery. Diabetes Care. 2010; 33:1783–1788

  52. Moghissi ES, Korytkowski MT, DiNardo M, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American Diabetes Association consensus statement on inpatient glycemic control. Diabetes Care. 2009; 32:1119–1131.

  53. R Margarita, K Zain, L Stuart, J Steinberg, P M Theresa, Z Michael, R Selwyn. Relationship of Perioperative Hyperglycemia and Postoperative Infections in Patients Who Undergo General and Vascular Surgery. Ann Surg 2008;248: 585–591

  54. J R. Brown, F H. Edwards, Gerald T. O’Connor, C S. Ross, A P. Furnary. The Diabetic Disadvantage: Historical Outcomes Measures in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery—The Pre-Intravenous Insulin Era. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg.2006; 18:281–288

  55. Martin ET, Kaye KS, Knott C, et al. Diabetes and risk of surgical site infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2016;37:88–99

  56. Mahid, S S, Polk, H C., Lewis, J N., T, Matthias. Opportunities for Improved Performance in Surgical Specialty Practice. Ann Surg. 2008; 247:380–388

  57. Rajesh Garg, Brooke Schuman, Angela Bader, Shelley Hurwitz, Alexander Turchin, Patricia Underwood, Cheyenne Metzger, Raquel Rein, Meghan Lortie. Effect of Preoperative Diabetes Management on Glycemic Control and Clinical Outcomes After Elective Surgery. Annals of Surgery 267, 5, 2018. 858-62.

  58. S Kumar, M E. Molitch. Use of Insulin in the Inpatient Setting: Need for Continued Use. Diabetes Care. 2007; 30:823– 82

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  60. Akhtar S, Barash PG, Inzucchi SE. Scientific principles and clinical implications of perioperative glucose regulation and control. Anesth Analg 2010; 110:478–97

  61. Tracy Setji, Thomas J. Hopkins, Maria Jimenez, Erin Manning, Michael Shaughnessy, Rebecca Schroeder, Sergio Mendoza-Lattes, Susan Spratt, Julie Westover, Solomon Aronson. Rationalization, Development, and Implementation of a Preoperative Diabetes Optimization Program Designed to Improve Perioperative Outcomes and Reduce Cost. Diabetes Spectrum 30, 3, 2017, pp 217-223

Fitness

  1. Integration of the Duke Activity Status Index into preop risk evaluation: a multicentre prospective cohort study. Br J of Anaesth, 124 (3), 2020

  2. Minnella, E. M., Coca-Martinez, M. & Carli, F. Prehabilitation: the anesthesiologist’s role and what is the evidence? Curr. Opin. Anaesthesiol. 33, 411–416 (2020).

  3. Mayo, N. E. et al. Impact of preoperative change in physical function on postoperative recovery: argument supporting prehabilitation for colorectal surgery. Surgery 150, 505–514 (2011).

  4. Gillis, C. et al. Older frail prehabilitated patients who cannot attain a 400 m 6-min walking distance before colorectal surgery suffer more postoperative complications. Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. J. Eur. Soc. Surg. Oncol. Br. Assoc. Surg. Oncol. (2020) doi:10.1016/j.ejso.2020.09.041.

  5. Fleisher Lee A. et al. 2014 ACC/AHA Guideline on Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation and Management of Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery. Circulation 130, e278–e333 (2014).

  6. Sheill, G. et al. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Oesophagogastric Surgery: a Systematic Review. J. Gastrointest. Surg. Off. J. Soc. Surg. Aliment. Tract 24, 2667–2678 (2020).

  7. Thomas, G. et al. Why women are not small men: sex-related differences in perioperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Perioper. Med. Lond. Engl. 9, 18 (2020).

  8. Moran, J. et al. The ability of prehabilitation to influence postoperative outcome after intra-abdominal operation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Surgery 160, 1189–1201 (2016).

  9. Ga, T., R, A., J, D. & Gr, D. Clinical guideline and recommendations on pre-operative exercise training in patients awaiting major non-cardiac surgery. Anaesthesia vol. 73 https://pubmed-ncbi-nlm-nih-gov.ezproxy.lib.utexas.edu/29330843/ (2018).

  10. A, B. et al. Peak oxygen consumption during cardiopulmonary exercise test improves risk stratification in candidates to major lung resection. Chest vol. 135 https://pubmed-ncbi-nlm-nih-gov.ezproxy.lib.utexas.edu/19029436/ (2009).

  11. Hlatky, M. A. et al. A brief self-administered questionnaire to determine functional capacity (The Duke Activity Status Index). Am. J. Cardiol. 64, 651–654 (1989).

  12. Wijeysundera, D. N. et al. Integration of the Duke Activity Status Index into preoperative risk evaluation: a multicentre prospective cohort study. Br. J. Anaesth. 124, 261–270 (2020).

  13. Wijeysundera, D. N. et al. Assessment of functional capacity before major non-cardiac surgery: an international, prospective cohort study. Lancet Lond. Engl. 391, 2631–2640 (2018).

  14. Carli, F. & Zavorsky, G. S. Optimizing functional exercise capacity in the elderly surgical population. Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care 8, 23–32 (2005).

  15. Howard, R. et al. Taking Control of Your Surgery: Impact of a Prehabilitation Program on Major Abdominal Surgery. J. Am. Coll. Surg. 228, 72–80 (2019).

  16. Barberan-Garcia, A. et al. Personalised Prehabilitation in High-risk Patients Undergoing Elective Major Abdominal Surgery: A Randomized Blinded Controlled Trial. Ann. Surg. 267, 50–56 (2018).

  17. Minnella, E. M., Bousquet-Dion, G., Awasthi, R., Scheede-Bergdahl, C. & Carli, F. Multimodal prehabilitation improves functional capacity before and after colorectal surgery for cancer: a five-year research experience. Acta Oncol. Stockh. Swed. 56, 295–300 (2017).

  18. Minnella, E. M. et al. Multimodal Prehabilitation to Enhance Functional Capacity Following Radical Cystectomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Eur. Urol. Focus (2019) doi:10.1016/j.euf.2019.05.016.

  19. Minnella, E. M. et al. Effect of Exercise and Nutrition Prehabilitation on Functional Capacity in Esophagogastric Cancer Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Surg. 153, 1081–1089 (2018).

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Frailty

  1. Launching a Geriatric Surgery Center. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2020 Jul

  2. Flexman AM, Charest-Morin R, Stobart L, Street J, Ryerson CJ: Frailty and postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing surgery for degenerative spine disease. Spine J 2016; 16:1315–23

  3. Beggs T, Sepehri A, Szwajcer A, Tangri N, Arora RC: Frailty and perioperative outcomes: A narrative review. Can J Anaesth 2015; 62:143–57

  4. Bagnall NM, Faiz O, Darzi A, Athanasiou T: What is the utility of preoperative frailty assessment for risk stratification in cardiac surgery? Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2013; 17:398–402

  5. Buigues C, Juarros-Folgado P, Fernández-Garrido J, Navarro-Martínez R, Cauli O: Frailty syndrome and pre-operative risk evaluation: A systematic review. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2015; 61:309–21

  6. Ali TZ, Lehman EB, Aziz F: Modified frailty index can be used to predict adverse outcomes and mortality after lower extremity bypass surgery. Ann Vasc Surg 2018; 46:168–77

  7. Hall DE, Arya S, Schmid KK, Blaser C, Carlson MA, Bailey TL, Purviance G, Bockman T, Lynch TG, Johanning J: Development and initial validation of the risk analysis index for measuring frailty in surgical populations. JAMA Surg 2017; 152:175–82

  8. McIsaac DI, Moloo H, Bryson GL, van Walraven C: The association of frailty with outcomes and resource use after emergency general surgery: A population-based cohort study. Anesth Analg 2017; 124:1653–61

  9. Cooper Z, Rogers SO Jr, Ngo L, Guess J, Schmitt E, Jones RN, Ayres DK, Walston JD, Gill TM, Gleason LJ, Inouye SK, Marcantonio ER: Comparison of frailty measures as predictors of outcomes after orthopedic surgery. J Am Geriatr Soc 2016; 64:2464–71

  10. Fried, L. P. et al. Frailty in Older AdultsEvidence for a Phenotype. J. Gerontol. Ser. A 56, M146–M157 (2001).

  11. McIsaac, D. I., MacDonald, D. B. & Aucoin, S. D. Frailty for Perioperative Clinicians: A Narrative Review. Anesth. Analg. 130, 1450–1460 (2020).

  12. Rodríguez-Mañas, L. et al. Searching for an operational definition of frailty: a Delphi method based consensus statement: the frailty operative definition-consensus conference project. J. Gerontol. A. Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 68, 62–67 (2013).

  13. Lin, H.-S., Watts, J. N., Peel, N. M. & Hubbard, R. E. Frailty and post-operative outcomes in older surgical patients: a systematic review. BMC Geriatr. 16, 157 (2016).

  14. Kim, D. H., Kim, C. A., Placide, S., Lipsitz, L. A. & Marcantonio, E. R. Preoperative Frailty Assessment and Outcomes at 6 Months or Later in Older Adults Undergoing Cardiac Surgical Procedures: A Systematic Review. Ann. Intern. Med. 165, 650–660 (2016).

  15. Sepehri, A. et al. The impact of frailty on outcomes after cardiac surgery: a systematic review. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 148, 3110–3117 (2014).

  16. Beggs, T., Sepehri, A., Szwajcer, A., Tangri, N. & Arora, R. C. Frailty and perioperative outcomes: a narrative review. Can. J. Anaesth. J. Can. Anesth. 62, 143–157 (2015).

  17. Panayi, A. C. et al. Impact of frailty on outcomes in surgical patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am. J. Surg. 218, 393–400 (2019).

  18. Green, P. et al. Relation of Frailty to Outcomes After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (from the PARTNER Trial). Am. J. Cardiol. 116, 264–269 (2015).

  19. McIsaac, D. I., Beaulé, P. E., Bryson, G. L. & Van Walraven, C. The impact of frailty on outcomes and healthcare resource usage after total joint arthroplasty: a population-based cohort study. Bone Jt. J. 98-B, 799–805 (2016).

  20. McIsaac, D. I. et al. Frailty as a Predictor of Death or New Disability After Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study. Ann. Surg. 271, 283–289 (2020).

  21. Johnston, K. J., Wen, H. & Joynt Maddox, K. E. Relationship of a Claims-Based Frailty Index to Annualized Medicare Costs: A Cohort Study. Ann. Intern. Med. 172, 533 (2020).

  22. Robinson, T. N., Wu, D. S., Stiegmann, G. V. & Moss, M. Frailty predicts increased hospital and six-month healthcare cost following colorectal surgery in older adults. Am. J. Surg. 202, 511–514 (2011).

  23. Rothenberg, K. A. et al. Association of Frailty and Postoperative Complications With Unplanned Readmissions After Elective Outpatient Surgery. JAMA Netw. Open 2, e194330 (2019).

  24. Hollenbeck, B. K., Hollingsworth, J. M., Dunn, R. L., Zaojun Ye,  null & Birkmeyer, J. D. Ambulatory surgery center market share and rates of outpatient surgery in the elderly. Surg. Innov. 17, 340–345 (2010).

  25. Chow, W. B. et al. Optimal preoperative assessment of the geriatric surgical patient: a best practices guideline from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and the American Geriatrics Society. J. Am. Coll. Surg. 215, 453–466 (2012).

  26. Gale, C. R., Cooper, C. & Sayer, A. A. Prevalence of frailty and disability: findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Age Ageing 44, 162–165 (2015).

  27. Sternberg, S. A. et al. Identifying frail older people using predictive modeling. Am. J. Manag. Care 18, e392-397 (2012).

  28. He, Y. et al. Assessment of predictive validity and feasibility of Edmonton Frail Scale in identifying postoperative complications among elderly patients: a prospective observational study. Sci. Rep. 10, (2020).

  29. Aucoin, S. D. et al. Accuracy and Feasibility of Clinically Applied Frailty Instruments before SurgeryA Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Anesthesiology 133, 78–95 (2020).

  30. He, W., Goodkind, D. & Kowal, P. An Aging World: 2015. 175 (2016).

  31. Marie E Csete. Basic science of frailty-biological mechanisms of age related sarcopenia.Analgesi Anesthesia 2021, 132; 293-304

  32. Rodríguez-Mañas, L. et al. Searching for an operational definition of frailty: a Delphi method-based consensus statement: the frailty operative definition-consensus conference project. J. Gerontol. A. Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 68, 62–67 (2013.

  33. Watt J, Tricco AC, Talbot-Hamon C, Pham B, Rios P, Grudmiewicz A, Wong C, Sniclair D, Straus SE: Identifying older adults at risk of harm following elective surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis BMC Med 2018; 16:2 /

  34. Flexman AM, Charest-Morin R, Stobart L, Street J, Ryerson CJ: Frailty and postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing surgery for degenerative spine disease. Spine J 2016; 16:1315–23

  35. Beggs T, Sepehri A, Szwajcer A, Tangri N, Arora RC: Frailty and perioperative outcomes: A narrative review. Can J Anaesth 2015; 62:143–57)

  36. Ali TZ, Lehman EB, Aziz F: Modified frailty index can be used to predict adverse outcomes and mortality after lower extremity bypass surgery. Ann Vasc Surg 2018; 46:168–77

  37. Hall DE, Arya S, Schmid KK, Blaser C, Carlson MA, Bailey TL, Purviance G, Bockman T, Lynch TG, Johanning J: Development and initial validation of the risk analysis index for measuring frailty in surgical populations. JAMA Surg 2017; 152:175–82

  38. McIsaac DI, Moloo H, Bryson GL, van Walraven C: The association of frailty with outcomes and resource use after emergency general surgery: A population-based cohort study. Anesth Analg 2017; 124:1653–61)

  39. Cooper Z, Rogers SO Jr, Ngo L, Guess J, Schmitt E, Jones RN, Ayres DK, Walston JD, Gill TM, Gleason LJ, Inouye SK, Marcantonio ER: Comparison of frailty measures as predictors of outcomes after orthopedic surgery. J Am Geriatr Soc 2016; 64:2464–71

  40. Panayi, A. C. et al. Impact of frailty on outcomes in surgical patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am. J. Surg. 218, 393–400, 2019

  41. McIsaac, D. I. et al. Frailty as a Predictor of Death or New Disability After Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study. Ann. Surg. 271, 283–289 (2020

  42. Chow, W. B. et al. Optimal preoperative assessment of the geriatric surgical patient: a best practices guideline from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and the American Geriatrics Society. J. Am. Coll. Surg. 215, 453–466 (2012)

  43. He, Y. et al. Assessment of predictive validity and feasibility of Edmonton Frail Scale in identifying postoperative complications among elderly patients: a prospective observational study. Sci. Rep. 10, (2020)

  44. Aucoin, S. D. et al. Accuracy and Feasibility of Clinically Applied Frailty Instruments before Surgery A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Anesthesiology 133, 78–95 (2020

Hypertension

Nutrition

  1. Preoperative Nutrition Optimization – Designed to Improve Perioperative Outcomes and Reduce Cost. Clinical Nutrition, 2020

  2. Bruun LI, Bosaeus I, Bergstad I, Nygaard K. Prevalence of malnutrition in surgical patients: evaluation of nutritional support and documentation. Clin Nutr 1999; 18:141.

  3. Studley HO. Percentage of weight loss: a basic indicator of surgical risk in patients with chronic peptic ulcer. 1936. Nutr Hosp 2001; 16:141.

  4. Zhang B, Najarali Z, Ruo L, Alhusaini A, Solis N, Valencia M, Sanchez MIP, Serrano PE. Effect of Perioperative Nutritional Supplementation on Postoperative Complications-Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Gastrointest Surg. 2019 Aug;23(8):1682-1693. doi: 10.1007/s11605-019-04173-5. Epub 2019 May 6.PMID: 31062270

  5. White JV, Guenter P, Jensen G, et al. Consensus statement: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition: characteristics recommended for the identification and documentation of adult malnutrition (undernutrition). JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2012; 36:275.

  6. Mueller C, Compher C, Druyan MD. American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition ASPEN clinical guidelines: nutrition screening, assessment, and intervention in adults. JPEN 2011; 35:16.

  7. Arnold M, Barbul A Nutrition and wound healing. Plast Reconstr Surg 2006; 117:42S.

  8. Reinhardt GF, Myscofski JW, Wilkens DB, et al. Incidence and mortality of hypoalbuminemic patients in hospitalized veterans. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1980; 4:357.

  9. McClave SA, Snider HL, Spain DA. Preoperative issues in clinical nutrition. Chest 1999; 115:64S.

  10. Abunnaja S, Cuviello A, Sanchez JA. Enteral and parenteral nutrition in the perioperative period: state of the art. Nutrients 2013; 5:608.

  11. Chapman JS, Roddy E, Westhoff G, et al. Post-operative enteral immunonutrition for gynecologic oncology patients undergoing laparotomy decreases wound complications. Gynecol Oncol. 2015;137(3):523‐528. doi:10.1016/j.ygyno.2015.04.003

  12. Burden S, Todd C, Hill J, Lal S. Pre-operative nutrition support in patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 11:CD008879.

  13. Zheng YM, Li F, Zhang MM, Wu XT. Glutamine dipeptide for parenteral nutrition in abdominal surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. World J Gastroenterol 2006; 12:7537.

  14. Drover JW, Dhaliwal R, Weitzel L, et al. Perioperative use of arginine-supplemented diets: a systematic review of the evidence. J Am Coll Surg 2011; 212:385.

  15. Marimuthu K, Varadhan KK, Ljungqvist O, Lobo DN. A meta-analysis of the effect of combinations of immune modulating nutrients on outcome in patients undergoing major open gastrointestinal surgery. Ann Surg 2012; 255:1060.

  16. Probst P, Ohmann S, Klaiber U, et al. Meta-analysis of immunonutrition in major abdominal surgery. Br J Surg 2017; 104:1594.
    Marik PE, Zaloga GP. Immunonutrition in critically ill patients: a systematic review and analysis of the literature. Intensive Care Med 2008; 34:1980.

  17. Mazaki T, Ishii Y, Murai I. Immunoenhancing enteral and parenteral nutrition for gastrointestinal surgery: a multiple-treatments meta-analysis. Ann Surg 2015; 261:662.

  18. Howes N, Atkinson C, Thomas S, Lewis SJ. Immunonutrition for patients undergoing surgery for head and neck cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018; 8:CD010954.

  19. Sarin A, Chen LL, Wick EC. Enhanced recovery after surgery-Preoperative fasting and glucose loading-A review. J Surg Oncol. 2017;116(5):578‐582. doi:10.1002/jso.24810
    Wischmeyer, Paul E. Carli, Franco, Evans, David C.; Guilbert, Sarah; Kozar, Rosemary; Pryor, Aurora,; Thiele, Robert H.; Everett, Sotiria; Grocott, Mike; Gan, Tong J.; Shaw, Andrew D; Thacker, Julie K. M; Miller, Timothy E. American Society for Enhanced Recovery and Perioperative Quality Initiative Joint Consensus Statement on Nutrition Screening and Therapy Within a Surgical Enhanced Recovery Pathway. Anesth Analg. 2018; 126:1883–1895

  20. Bruun LI, Bosaeus I, Bergstad I, Nygaard K. Prevalence of malnutrition in surgical patients: evaluation of nutritional support and documentation. Clin Nutr 1999; 18:141.

  21. Mueller C, Compher C, Druyan MD. American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition ASPEN clinical guidelines: nutrition screening, assessment, and intervention in adults. JPEN 2011; 35:16.

  22. Arnold M, Barbul A. Nutrition and wound healing. Plast Reconstr Surg 2006; 117:42S.

  23. White JV, Guenter P, Jensen G, et al. Consensus statement: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition: characteristics recommended for the identification and documentation of adult malnutrition. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2012; 36:275

  24. Jie B, Jiang ZM, Nolan MT et al (2012) Impact of preoperative nutritional support on clinical outcome in abdominal surgical patients at nutritional risk. Nutrition 28:1022–1027

  25. Sarin A, Chen LL, Wick EC. Enhanced recovery after surgery-Preoperative fasting and glucose loading-A review. J Surg Oncol. 2017;116(5):578‐582. doi:10.1002/jso.24810

  26. Zhang B, Najarali Z, Ruo L, Alhusaini A, Solis N, Valencia M, Sanchez MIP, Serrano PE. Effect of Perioperative Nutritional Supplementation on Postoperative Complications-Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Gastrointest Surg. 2019 Aug;23(8):1682-1693. doi: 10.1007/s11605-019-04173-5. Epub 2019 May 6.PMID: 31062270

  27. Burden S, Todd C, Hill J, Lal S. Pre-operative nutrition support in patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 11:CD008879

Pain

  1. Weibel S, Jelting Y, Pace NL, Helf A, Eberhart LH, Hahnenkamp K, Hollmann MW, Poepping DM, Schnabel A, Kranke P. Continuous intravenous perioperative lidocaine infusion for postoperative pain and recovery in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Jun 4;6(6):CD009642. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009642.pub3. PMID: 29864216; PMCID: PMC6513586.

  2. Rollins KE, Javanmard-Emamghissi H, Scott MJ, Lobo DN. The impact of peri-operative intravenous lidocaine on postoperative outcome after elective colorectal surgery: A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2020 Aug;37(8):659-670. doi: 10.1097/EJA.0000000000001165. PMID: 32141934.

  3. Albrecht E, Kirkham KR, Liu SS, Brull R. Peri-operative intravenous administration of magnesium sulphate and postoperative pain: a meta-analysis. Anaesthesia. 2013 Jan;68(1):79-90. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2044.2012.07335.x. Epub 2012 Nov 1. PMID: 23121612.

  4. De Oliveira GS Jr, Castro-Alves LJ, Khan JH, McCarthy RJ. Perioperative systemic magnesium to minimize postoperative pain: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Anesthesiology. 2013 Jul;119(1):178-90. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e318297630d. PMID: 23669270.

  5. Heesen, M., Rijs, K., Hilber, N., Eid, K., Al‐Oweidi, A., Rossaint, R. and Klimek, M. (2019), Effect of intravenous dexamethasone on postoperative pain after spinal anaesthesia – a systematic review with meta‐analysis and trial sequential analysis. Anaesthesia, 74: 1047-1056. https://doi.org/10.1111/anae.14666

  6. Hah J, Mackey SC, Schmidt P, McCue R, Humphreys K, Trafton J, Efron B, Clay D, Sharifzadeh Y, Ruchelli G, Goodman S, Huddleston J, Maloney WJ, Dirbas FM, Shrager J, Costouros JG, Curtin C, Carroll I. Effect of Perioperative Gabapentin on Postoperative Pain Resolution and Opioid Cessation in a Mixed Surgical Cohort: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Surg. 2018 Apr 1;153(4):303-311. doi: 10.1001/jamasurg.2017.4915. Erratum in: JAMA Surg. 2018 Apr 1;153(4):396. PMID: 29238824; PMCID: PMC5933381.

  7. Chaparro LE, Smith SA, Moore RA, Wiffen PJ, Gilron I. Pharmacotherapy for the prevention of chronic pain after surgery in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jul 24;2013(7):CD008307. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008307.pub2. PMID: 23881791; PMCID: PMC6481826.

  8. https://www.asra.com/guidelines-articles/original-articles/article-item/asra-news/2020/11/01/the-safety-of-rescue-blocks

  9. Murphy, Glenn S., and Joseph W. Szokol. “Intraoperative Methadone in Surgical PatientsA Review of Clinical Investigations.” Anesthesiology: The Journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists 131.3 (2019): 678-692.

  10. Joshi, Girish, et al. “Peripheral nerve blocks in the management of postoperative pain: challenges and opportunities.” Journal of clinical anesthesia 35 (2016): 524-529.

  11. Deyo RA, Hallvik SE, Hildebran C, Marino M, Dexter E, Irvine JM, O’Kane N, Van Otterloo J, Wright DA, Leichtling G, Millet LM. Association Between Initial Opioid Prescribing Patterns and Subsequent Long-Term Use Among Opioid-Naïve Patients: A Statewide Retrospective Cohort Study. J Gen Intern Med. 2017 Jan;32(1):21-27. 

  12. McAnally H. Rationale for and approach to preoperative opioid weaning: a preoperative optimization protocol. Perioper Med (Lond). 2017 Nov 22;6:19. doi: 10.1186/s13741-017-0079-y. PMID: 29201359; PMCID: PMC5700757.

  13. Chapman CR, Davis J, Donaldson GW, Naylor J, Winchester D. Postoperative pain trajectories in chronic pain patients undergoing surgery: the effects of chronic opioid pharmacotherapy on acute pain. J Pain. 2011 Dec;12(12):1240-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2011.07.005. Epub 2011 Oct 26. PMID: 22036517.

  14. Gupta A, Nizamuddin J, Elmofty D, Nizamuddin SL, Tung A, Minhaj M, Mueller A, Apfelbaum J, Shahul S. Opioid Abuse or Dependence Increases 30-day Readmission Rates after Major Operating Room Procedures: A National Readmissions Database Study. Anesthesiology. 2018 May;128(5):880-890. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000002136. PMID: 29470180.

  15. Nguyen LC, Sing DC, Bozic KJ. Preoperative Reduction of Opioid Use Before Total Joint Arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2016 Sep;31(9 Suppl):282-7. doi: 10.1016/j.arth.2016.01.068. Epub 2016 Mar 17. PMID: 27105557.

  16. Silva MJ, Rubinstein A. Continuous Perioperative Sublingual Buprenorphine. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother. 2016 Dec;30(4):289-293. doi: 10.1080/15360288.2016.1231734. Epub 2016 Oct 13. PMID: 27736284.

  17. Bryson EO. The perioperative management of patients maintained on medications used to manage opioid addiction. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2014 Jun;27(3):359-64. 

  18. Wenzel JT, Schwenk ES, Baratta JL, Viscusi ER. Managing Opioid-Tolerant Patients in the Perioperative Surgical Home. Anesthesiol Clin. 2016 Jun;34(2):287-301. 

  19. Jonan AB, Kaye AD, Urman RD. Buprenorphine Formulations: Clinical Best Practice Strategies Recommendations for Perioperative Management of Patients Undergoing Surgical or Interventional Pain Procedures. Pain Physician. 2018 Jan;21(1):E1-E12. 

  20. Childers JW, Arnold RM. Treatment of pain in patients taking buprenorphine for opioid addiction #221. J Palliat Med. 2012 May;15(5):613-4. 

  21. Katz J and Seltzer Z. Transition from acute to chronic postsurgical pain: risk factors and protective factors. Expert Rev Neurother 2009; 9: 723–744.

  22. Kehlet H, Jensen TS and Woolf CJ. Persistent postsurgical pain: risk factors and prevention. Lancet 2006; 367: 1618–1625.

  23. Haroutiunian S, Nikolajsen L, Finnerup NB, Jensen TS. The neuropathic component in persistent postsurgical pain: a systematic literature review. Pain 2013; 154: 95–102

  24. Weir S, Samnaliev M, Kuo TC, et al. The incidence and healthcare costs of persistent postoperative pain following lumbar spine surgery in the UK: a cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES). BMJ Open 2017; 7: e017585.

  25. Thomson S. Failed back surgery syndrome—definition, epidemiology and demographics. Br J Pain 2013; 7: 56–59.

  26. Beswick AD, Wylde V, Gooberman?Hill R, Blom A, Dieppe P. What proportion of patients report long-term pain after total hip or knee replacement for osteoarthritis? A systematic review of prospective studies in unselected patients. BMJ Open 2012; 2: e000435.

  27. Forsberg A, Claeson M, Dahlman GB, Lennerling A. Pain, fatigue and well-being one to five years after lung transplantation— a nationwide cross?sectional study. Scand J Caring Sci 2017; published online Oct 4. DOI:10.1111/scs.12537.

  28. Wang L, Guyatt GH, Kennedy SA, et al. Predictors of persistent pain after breast cancer surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. CMAJ 2016; 188: e352–61.

  29. VanDenKerkhof EG, Peters ML, Bruce J. Chronic pain after surgery: time for standardization? A framework to establish core risk factor and outcome domains for epidemiological studies. Clin J Pain 2013; 29: 2–8.

  30. Weiser TG, Haynes AB, Molina G, et al. Size and distribution of the global volume of surgery in 2012. Bull World Health Organ 2016; 94: 201–09F.

  31. Brat Gabriel A, Agniel Denis, Beam Andrew, Yorkgitis Brian, Bicket Mark, Homer Mark et al. Postsurgical prescriptions for opioid naive patients and association with overdose and misuse: retrospective cohort study BMJ 2018; 360 :j5790

  32. Sun EC, Darnall BD, Baker LC, Mackey S. Incidence of and risk factors for chronic opioid use among opioid-naive patients in the postoperative period. JAMA InternMed 2016;176(9):1286–93.

  33. Brummett CM, Waljee JF, Goesling J, et al. New persistent opioid use after minor and major surgical procedures in US adults. JAMA Surg 2017;152 (6):e170504.

  34. Helmerhorst GT, Vranceanu A-M, Vrahas M, Smith M, Ring D. Risk factors for continued opioid use one to two months after surgery for musculoskeletal trauma. JBJS 2014;96(6):495–9.

  35. Khan RS, Ahmed K, Blakeway E, et al. Catastrophizing: A predictive factor for postoperative pain. Am J Surg 2011;201(1):122–31.

  36. Papaioannou M, Skapinakis P, Damigos D, et al. The role of catastrophizing in the prediction of postoperative pain. Pain Med 2009;10(8):1452–9.

  37. Pavlin DJ, Sullivan MJ, Freund PR, Roesen K. Catastrophizing: A risk factor for postsurgical pain. Clin J Pain 2005;21(1):83–90.

  38. Picavet HSJ, Vlaeyen JW, Schouten JS. Pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia: Predictors of chronic low back pain. Am J Epidemiol 2002;156 (11):1028–34.

Pulmonary

Sleep Disorders

  1. Preop Sleep Questionnaires in Older Adults J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2019 10; 20(10):1340-1343.e2.

  2. https://aasm.org/rising-prevalence-of-sleep-apnea-in-u-s-threatens-public-health/ 

  3. https://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1917935

  4. Obstructive Sleep Apnea in the Perioperative Setting: Complications and Management Strategies Melissa C Lipford 1, Kannan Ramar, Salim R Surani, PMID: 25559851 DOI: 10.1080/21548331.2015.1001709

  5. Melissa C Lipford , Kannan Ramar, Salim R Surani Obstructive Sleep Apnea in the Perioperative Setting: Complications and Management Strategies. Hosp Practice 2015;43(1):56-63

  6. Society of Anesthesia and Sleep Medicine Guidelines on Preoperative Screening and Assessment of Adult Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Anesthesia & Analgesia: August 2016 – Volume 123 – Issue 2 – p 452-473

  7. J Verbraecken, J Hedner, T Penzel. Pre-operative screening for obstructive sleep apnoea European Respiratory Review 2017 26: 160012

  8. Practice Guidelines for the Perioperative Management of Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: An Updated Report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Perioperative Management of Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Anesthesiology February 2014, Vol. 120, 268–286

Smoking

  1. Society for Perioperative Assessment and Quality Improvement Consensus Statement on Periop Smoking Cessation. Anesth. Analg. 2019 Nov

  2. A Systematic Approach to Perioperative Smoking Cessation; Techniques in Orthopedics 2019

  3. Services, U.S.D.o.H.a.H. The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. . 2014; Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/fast_facts/index.htm.

  4. Creamer MR, W.T., Babb S, et al. . Tobacco Product Use and Cessation Indicators Among Adults – United States, 2018. . Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2019, 68(45);1013-1019 2019; Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6845a2.htm?s_cid=mm6845a2_w.

  5. McBride, C.M., K.M. Emmons, and I.M. Lipkus, Understanding the potential of teachable moments: the case of smoking cessation. Health Educ Res, 2003. 18(2): p. 156-70.

  6. Shi, Y. and D.O. Warner, Surgery as a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Anesthesiology, 2010. 112(1): p. 102-7.

  7. (US)., C.f.D.C.a.P.U.N.C.f.C.D.P.a.H.P.U.O.o.S.a.H. and A.G.C.f.D.C.a.P. (US), How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease: A Report of the Surgeon General. Vol. 7. 2010.

  8. Celermajer DS, S.K., Gooch VM, Spiegelhalter DJ, Miller OI, Sullivan ID, Lloyd JK, Deanfield JE, Non-invasive detection of endothelial dysfunction in children and adults at risk of atherosclerosis. Lancet, 1992. 340: p. 1111–1115.

  9. Messner, B. and D. Bernhard, Smoking and cardiovascular disease: mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction and early atherogenesis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 2014. 34(3): p. 509-15.

  10. Markidan, J., et al., Smoking and Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Young Men. Stroke, 2018. 49(5): p. 1276-1278.

  11. Sorensen, L.T., Wound healing and infection in surgery: the pathophysiological impact of smoking, smoking cessation, and nicotine replacement therapy: a systematic review. Ann Surg, 2012. 255(6): p. 1069-79.

  12. Musallam, K.M., et al., Smoking and the Risk of Mortality and Vascular and Respiratory Events in Patients Undergoing Major Surgery. JAMA Surgery, 2013. 148(8): p. 755-762.

  13. Kuri, M., et al., Determination of the duration of preoperative smoking cessation to improve wound healing after head and neck surgery. Anesthesiology, 2005. 102(5): p. 892-6.

  14. Services, U.S.D.o.H.a.H. The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/fast_facts/index.htm.

  15. Messner, B. and D. Bernhard, Smoking and cardiovascular disease: mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction and early atherogenesis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 2014. 34(3): p. 509-15.

  16. Celermajer DS, S.K., Gooch VM, Spiegelhalter DJ, Miller OI, Sullivan ID, Lloyd JK, Deanfield JE, Non-invasive detection of endothelial dysfunction in children and adults at risk of atherosclerosis. Lancet, 1992. 340: p. 1111–1115.

  17. Musallam, K.M., et al., Smoking and the Risk of Mortality and Vascular and Respiratory Events in Patients Undergoing Major Surgery. JAMA Surgery, 2013. 148(8): p. 755-762

  18. Musallam, K.M., et al., Smoking and the Risk of Mortality and Vascular and Respiratory Events in Patients Undergoing Major Surgery. JAMA Surgery, 2013. 148(8): p. 755-762.

  19. Sorensen, L.T., Wound healing and infection in surgery: the pathophysiological impact of smoking, smoking cessation, and nicotine replacement therapy: a systematic review. Ann Surg, 2012. 255(6): p. 1069-79.

Stress

  1. Schnur JB, Bovbjerg DH, David D, et al. Hypnosis decreases presurgical distress in excisional breast biopsy patients. Anesth Analg. 2008;106:440–444

  2. Montgomery GH, Bovbjerg DH, Schnur JB, et al. A randomized clinical trial of a brief hypnosis intervention to control side effects in breast surgery patients. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007;99:1304–1312

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